500年来艺术中的“撒旦” Sympathy for the Devil: Satan, Sin, and the Underworld
“Sympathy for the Devil: Satan, Sin, and the Underworld,”
traces Lucifer’s visual history, from his emergence in the Middle Ages as a horned, cloven-hoofed, foul-smelling, diabolical creature of the night to his denuded and largely ironic image today.
“By around 1500, his visage and characteristics were pretty well set,” Bernard Barryte, Cantor’s curator of European art, tells Quartz. “He was initially a conflation of sundry things. Everything from Pan to Near Eastern gods got mushed together in the Middle Ages and became what we know of as the devil.”
In the 16th and 17th century, grisly paintings of the Evil One were intended literally, Barryte says.”They were meant to have a moral effect, which is why artists made him awful looking. Even if you were educated, you would wonder, ‘What if?’ No matter how skeptical one might be today, there was real faith underlying this imagery.”
在16-17世纪，“邪恶之主 (the Evil One)”可怕的绘画作品是蓄意而为的，人们意欲借助它们获取一种“道德效果”即：艺术家们给恶魔创造可怖的形象。就算人门受过了教育，都会想“如果......（我做了错事被他找上），咋整？”也许就算是怀疑论者，也会在这样的图像下找到真正的信仰。
The Enlightenment began to change that. As our conception of evil shifted, so did our personification of the devil. “He becomes more human, even romanticized, after the popular revolutions of the late 18th century, especially the French Revolution,” Barryte says. In the 19th century, the devil was often depicted as a “shrewd and wily dandy,” a Mephistophelean figure who would trick you out of your soul, not brutally tear it from you. “Fear is no longer his most effective tactic,” Barryte says. “And in the 20th century, he all but disappears except in advertisements.”
In his place—well, look in the mirror. “Hell is other people, is how Jean-Paul Sartre put it,” Barryte says. “All the sources of evil seemed to shift from some horrific other to mankind itself.”
School of Hieronymous Bosch, “Last Judgment” (late 15th century).
Albrecht Dürer, “Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse” (1498)
Agostino Musi, “The Carcass (The Witches Procession)” (1520–1527).
Hendrick Goltzius, “The Descent to Hell of the Damned” (1577).
Johannes Sadeler, “Hell” (1590).
Cornelis Galle I, “Lucifer” (c. 1595).
Thomas Stothard, “Satan Summoning His Legions,” (c. 1790).
Louis Boulanger, “The Round of the Sabbath” (1828).
Eugene Delacroix, “Mephistopheles Flying over the City” (1828).